The Passive of Whatever Tense

passive

Poster by: @SahrudinSaja

By: @SahrudinSaja

THIS essay is aimed at students of grade 12 (formerly known as grade 3 secondary school) who still have some difficulties with passive voice constructions.
Esai ini ditujukan untuk siswa/siswi kelas 12 (dulu dikenal dengan kelas 3 SMA) yang masih menemui kesulitan dalam memahami susunan kalimat pasif.

Ok, here we go…
Baiklah, langsung saja kita mulai…

An active sentence has the subject first, followed by the verb, and finally the object.
Pada sebuah kalimat aktif, subjek berada di awal kalimat, lalu diikuti kata kerja dan objek.

A subject can be interpreted as a person or thing that does the verb, and an object means a person or thing to which a specified action is directed.
Subjek dapat diartikan sebagai orang maupun benda lain yang melakukan suatu tindakan (kata kerja), sedangkan objek, dimaknai sebagai orang atau benda lain, yang mana suatu tindakan ditujukan terhadapnya.

Take a look at the example below:
Lihatlah contoh di bawah ini:

Presiden Koclok bought a pair of pigeons.
Presiden Koclok membeli sepasang merpati.

In the example, the subject is “Presiden Koclok”, the verb is “bought” and the object is “a pair of pigeons”.
Dalam contoh tersebut, subjeknya adalah “Presiden Koclok”, kata kerjanya “bought” dan objeknya “a pair of pigeons”.

If the sentence above is changed into the passive, then the result will be:
Jika kalimat di atas diubah menjadi kalimat pasif, maka hasilnya akan menjadi:

A pair of pigeons were bought by Presiden Koclok.
Sepasang merpati dibeli oleh Presiden Koclok.

So, based on the example above, we make the passive by putting the object first and the verb “to be” into whatever tense we use, and then adding the “past participle“.
Jadi, berdasarkan contoh di atas, kita membuat kalimat pasif dengan cara menempatkan objek di awal kalimat, lalu “to be” ke dalam bentuk tense apapun yang kita gunakan, kemudian menambahkan “past participle” alias kata kerja bentuk ke-tiga.

For regular verbs, we make the past participle by adding “ed” to the infinitive. So: kick becomes kicked.
Untuk kata kerja beraturan, kita membuat past participle dengan cara menambahkan “ed” setelah kata kerja dasar. Sehingga: kick menjadi kicked.

To make things clearer, I give you more examples:
Agar lebih jelas, saya beri contoh-contoh lainnya:

Present Simple
I speak Javanese —> Javanese is spoken (by me).
Present Continuous
I am speaking Javanese —> Javanese is being spoken (by me).
Past Simple
I spoke Javanese —> Javanese was spoken (by me).
Past Continuous
I was speaking Javanese —> Javanese was being spoken (by me).
Present Perfect
I have spoken Javanese —> Javanese has been spoken (by me).
Present Perfect Continuous
I have been speaking Javanese —> Javanese has been being spoken (by me).
Past Perfect
I had spoken Javanese —> Javanese had been spoken (by me).
Future Simple
I will speak Javanese —> Javanese will be spoken (by me).
Future Perfect
I will have spoken Javanese —> Javanese will have been spoken (by me).

Now, what if a sentence or a verb has two objects?
Sekarang, bagaimana jika sebuah kalimat atau kata kerja memiliki dua objek?

When there are two objects in an active sentence, there are two possible passive sentences:
Manakala ada dua objek dalam sebuah kalimat aktif, maka akan ada dua pilihan kalimat pasif:

Presiden Koclok gave trouble to the people —> The people were given trouble (by Presiden Koclok), or, Trouble were given to the people (by Presiden Koclok).

The passive can also be set up in subordinate clauses:
Kalimat pasif bisa juga dibentuk dalam klausa subordinat:

I thought that Presiden Koclok had kissed Hokhok. —> I thought that Hokhok had been kissed by Presiden Koclok.

People knew that Hokhok had stolen their money. —> People knew that their money had been stolen by Hokhok.***[magelang.images@gmail.com]

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